-An absolute phrase is a modifier (quite often a
participle), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a sentence
or a noun, with no conjunction. An absolute phrase cannot contain a finite verb.
phrases usually consist of a noun and a modifier that modifies this noun, NOT
another noun in the sentence.
phrases are optional in sentences, i.e., they can be removed without damaging
the grammatical integrity of the sentence. Since absolute phrases are optional
in the sentence, they are often set off from the sentence with commas or, less
often, with dashes. We normally explain absolute phrases by saying that they
modify entire sentences, rather than one word. This is an important concept,
since many similar phrases that we work with modify other words. For example,
adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs. That said, however, in some cases, it seems to make more sense to say
that absolute phrases modify nouns. We will look at some of these examples .
Mẫu 1: Danh từ (đại từ+ phân từ hiện tại)
The question being settled, we went home.
shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting.
monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off.
Mẫu 2: Danh từ (đại từ+ Phân từ quá khứ)
job finished, we went home.
last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
time given, we should have done the job much better.
Mẫu 3: Danh từ (đại từ+ động từ nguyên dạng)
to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week.
many people to help him, he is sure to succeed.
Mẫu 4: Danh từ (đại từ+ kết cấu giới từ)
girl came in, book in hand.
waiting, his eyes on her back.
Mẫu 5: Danh từ (đại từ+ tính từ hoặc phó từ)
sat in the front row, his mouth half open.
sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin
the long letter.
There being +Danh từ (đại từ)
being nothing else to do, we went home.
being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.
Mẫu 7: It being +Danh từ (đại từ)
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.
being a holiday, all the shops were shut.
cấu trúc độc lập có thể có giới từ "with”
sleep with the windows open.
stood before his teacher with his head down.
lying on the bed with all his clothes on.
came in with a book in her hand.
fell asleep with the lamp burning.
won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.
there with his eyes closed.
the afternoon he worked with the door locked.
can’t go out with all these clothes to wash.
một loại mệnh đề rút gọn ."