HARDLY / SCARCELY / BARELY ... WHEN NO SOONER ... THAN
When a story is told in the past tense, the adverbials hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are often used to emphasise that one event quickly followed another. The verb describing the earlier event is usually in the past perfect tense. If hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are in the initial position, the subject and auxiliary are inverted:
Hardly had I arrived home when my phone rang. (I had hardly arrived home when my phone rang.)
Scarcely had she finished reading when she fell asleep. (She had scarcely finished reading when she fell asleep.)
Barely had they won the match when the coach had a heart attack. (They had barely won the match when the coach had a heart attack.)
No sooner had the company launched its new product than it went bankrupt. (The company had no sooner launched its new product than it went bankrupt.)
Note that hardly, scarcely and barely are followed by when, while no sooner is followed by than. (Sooner is the comparative form of soon.)
No sooner … than, Hardly…when AUGUST 20, 2013pdf If the second event occurs immediately after the first, we can express that idea using the structure no sooner … than.
Note that in this structure no sooner introduces the event that occurred first.
No sooner had I arrived at the station than the train came. (= I came first and the train arrived right after me.) No sooner had we heard the noise than we rushed to the spot. No sooner had she finished one project than she started working on the next. No sooner had I closed my eyes than I fell asleep. Note that did is also possible in this structure.
No sooner did I arrive at the station than the train came. No sooner did we hear the noise than we rushed to the spot. Notes
When we begin a sentence with a negative word, we put the auxiliary verb before the subject.
No sooner had she read the letter than she started crying. (NOT No sooner she read the letter than she started crying.) Note that when and before are not possible in this structure.
Hardly and scarcely
It is possible to express the same idea using hardly/scarcely…when.
Hardly had I reached the station when the train came. Scarcely had I reached the station when the train arrived. As soon as
This structure is also used with the same meaning.
As soon as I arrived at the station, the train came. As soon as she finished one project, she started working on the next.
.....hardly......when/ before..... .....scarcely.....when/ before..... .....no sooner.......than....... 3 cấu trúc này đều mang nghĩa "ngay khi........thì". Thường được dùng (thường với thì QKHT, đôi khi dùng QKĐ) để chỉ 1 việc gì đó đã xảy ra không lâu sau việc khác.
I had hardly/ scarcely closed my eyes when the phone rang. (Ngay khi tôi vừa nhắm mắt thì điện thoại reo) She was hardly/ scarcely inside the house before the kids started screaming. (Ngay khi cô ấy vừa vào trong nhà thì bọn trẻ hét lên thất thanh) I had no sooner closed the door than somebody knocked. (Ngay khi tôi vừa đóng cửa thì ai đó lại gõ cửa) * Nếu hardly / scarcely / no sooner đứng đầu câu thì ta phải đảo ngữ (cấu trúc này thường được dùng trong văn phong trang trọng hoặc văn viết)