INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ)
Trong tiếng Anh , khi trong câu có những từ hoặc cụm từ sau , người ta thường đặt chúng ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh ý nghĩa của câu. Đồng thời động từ trong câu được đặt như dạng câu hỏi. Điều này được gọi là đảo ngữ.
Nguyên tắc chung:
1)- Với động từ BE: …… BE S ………
2)- Với dộng từ thường:
a)- Ở các thì đơn (HT đơn, QK đơn): ……. DO/DOES/DID S V …………
b)- Ở các thì hoàn thành (HTHT , QKHT): ……. HAVE/HAS/HAD S PP/V3 …………
3)- Với các động từ tình thái (MV): ………. MV S V .................
I-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NO VÀ NOT:
- I wil lend you no money from now on. ĐN:- No money will I lend you from now on.
- I wont lend you any money from now on. ĐN:- Not any money will I lend you from now on.
II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC TRẠNG TỪ PHỦ ĐỊNH:
Never(không bao giờ), rarely = seldom = little (ít khi, hiếm khi, hầu như không), hardly (ever) (hầu như không bao giờ).
- I will never speak to him again. ĐN:- Never will I speak to him again.
- He has rarely got mark 10 in maths. ĐN:- Rarely has he got mark 10 in maths.
- I seldom listen to rock music. ĐN:- Seldom do I listen to rock music.
- She little understands me. ĐN:- Little does she understand me.
- They hardly (ever) speak in public. ĐN:- Hardly (ever) do they speak in public.
- She is never late for school. ĐN:- Never is she late for school.
II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI:
No sooner …… than; Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…… when/before…….. (Vừa mới ….. thì…….)
1)- No sooner had S PP/V3 than clause (QKĐ)
2)- Hardly/Barely/Scarcely had S PP/V3 when/before clause (QKĐ)
-I had no sooner arrived home than the phone rang.
ĐN:- No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang.
-I had hardly arrived home when/before the phone rang.
ĐN:- Hardly had I arrived home when/before the phone rang.
III-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI ONLY:
- Only after N/V-ing: chỉ sau khi. - Only later: Chỉ sau này
- Only once: chỉ một lần - Only then : chỉ đến lúc đó
- Only when clause : chi đến khi - Only if clause : chỉ nếu
- Only by N/V-ing : chỉ bằng cách - Only with N/V-ing: chỉ với.
- Only in this/that way : chỉ bằng cách này/đó
- I realized that I had forgotten to put on a stamp only after posting the letter.
ĐN:- Only after posting the letter did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.
- She will love him only when she understands him.
ĐN:- Only when she understands him will she love him.
- We can pass the exam only by working harder.
ĐN:- Only by working harder can we pass the exam.
- We will be successful only in this way.
ĐN:- Only in this way will we be successful.
- You are allowed to enter this room only if I have given permission.
ĐN:- Only if I have given permission are you allowed to enter this room.
IV- ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO:
- At no time : chưa từng bao giờ
- In no way : không còn cách nào
- On no condition : tuyệt đối không
- On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì
- Under/In no circumstances:trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.
- For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì.
- No longer: không còn nữa
- He never knew she came from a rich family.
ĐN1:- At no time did he know she came from a rich family.
ĐN2:- Never did he know she came from a rich family.
- Keith certainly cant be held responsible for the accident.
ĐN:- In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.
- Passengers arent permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances.
ĐN:- Under/In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors.
- He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job.
ĐN:- No longer does he works as an accountant. He …………………………..
V-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO ………….. THAT VÀ SUCH ………. THAT :
1)- SO ……….. THAT :
- He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.
ĐN:- So hard did he worked that he forgot his lunch.
- The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN1:- So interesting is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN2:- Such is the interest of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
- He bought so many books that he couldn't read them all.
ĐN: So many books did he buy that he couldn't read them all.
- Alice has so much homework that she can't finish it all.
ĐN: So much homework does Alice have that she can't finish it all.
Note: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE N không dùng SUCH.
2)- SUCH ……………. THAT :
- It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.
ĐN:- Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy.
Note: trong trường hợp BE SO MUCH/GREAT đổi thành SUCH BE NOUN
- The force of the storm was so great that trees were uprooted.
ĐN:- Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted.
VI-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …………. BUT ALSO (không những mà còn)
NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường
- He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well.
ĐN:- Not only is he good at English but he can also draw very well.
VII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTILL/TILL (THEN/LATER)
NOT UNTILL/TILL mệnh đề thường mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến khi)
- I didnt know where I was untill I asked a passer-by.
ĐN:- Not untill I asked a passer-by did I know where I was.
NOT UNTILL/TILL THEN/LATER mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến lúc đó/sau này)
- I didnt recognize him untill later.
ĐN:- Not untill later did I recognize him.
VIII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER/NOR VÀ SO:
- They dont like chicken, and neither/nor do I.
- She can play the guitar, and so can I.
* ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER………………..NOR :
- There is neither excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
ĐN: Neither is there excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
IX-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG SO SÁNH VỚI AS VÀ THAN:
- The cake was excellent, as the coffee was.
ĐN:- The cake was excellent, as was the coffee.
- I thought, as my friend did, that the exam would be difficult.
ĐN:-I thought, as did my friend, that the exam would be difficult.
- He has more money than you do.
ĐN:- He has more money than do you.
X-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN:
1-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1:
IF S V ……. ---------> SHOULD S V ……….
- If you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
ĐN:- Should you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
- If anybody phones me, please tell them Im busy.
ĐN:- Should anybody phone me, please tell them Im busy.
2-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2:
a-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ TO BE:
IF S WERE ………………….. ----------------> WERE S ………………..
- If I were you, I wouldnt do that. ĐN:-Were I you, I wouldnt do that.
b-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG:
IF S P/V2 ………………… ---------------> WERE S TO V ……………
- If he worked more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.
ĐN:-Were he to work more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.
3-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3:
IF S HAD PP/V3 ……………………… -------------------> HAD S PP/V3 ………….
-If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
ĐN:-Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ từ.
- If you dont believe what I said, ask your mother.
ĐN:- Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother.
- If she were not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
ĐN:- Were she not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
- If I hadnt seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
ĐN:- Had I not seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
XI-ĐẢO NGỮ SAU CÁC TRẠNG NGỮ CHỈ PHƯƠNG HƯỚNG HOẶC VỊ TRÍ:
Khi câu có một từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ chỉ phương hướng hoặc vị trí thì nội động từ được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ.
- David began to open the parcels. A dictionary was inside the first.
ĐN:- David began to open the parcels. Inside the first was a dictionary.
- A portrait of Lenin was above the fiòlace.
ĐN:- Above the fiòlace was a portrait of Lenin.
- His father sat in an armchair. ĐN:- In an armchair sat his father.
-Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng các nội động từ chỉ sự chuyển động như: CLIMB, COME, FLY, GO, HANG, LIE, RUN, SIT, STAND, ……..
-Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn.
-Trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ mà sử dụng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ từ.
-Không đảo ngữ khi chủ từ là đại từ.
(sai): In an armchair sat she.