reduced adverb(ial) clause - 15 September 2014 - GRAMMAR & STRUCTURES - ENGLISH - 4 -STUDY BY MR. DANG THANH TAM
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Main » 2014 » Tháng 9 » 15 » reduced adverb(ial) clause
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reduced adverb(ial) clause

  • "Study the examples below to see how adverb clauses are reduced:
    1. Time sequences with after, before, once, since, until, when, and while

    After they sang two songs, the performers did a dance. [clause] 
    After singing two songs, the performers did a dance. [phrase] 

    Before he answered the phone, he grabbed a pencil and notepad. [clause] 
    Before answering the phone, he grabbed a pencil and notepad. [phrase] . . . 

    2. Giving reasons with because 
    When a clause introduced by because is reduced, because is omitted and the verb changes form: 

    Because she had always been interested in sports, Linda became an avid supporter of the team. [clause] 
    Having always been interested in sports, Linda became an avid supporter of the team. [phrase] 

    3. Clauses of concession with although, despite, in spite of, though, andwhile

    Although he was hurt, Jack managed to smile. [clause] 
    Although hurt, Jack managed to smile. [phrase] . . . 

    In spite of the fact that she works long hours, Joan spends a lot of time with her family. [clause] 
    In spite of working long hours, Joan spends a lot of time with her family. [phrase] . . .
    The verb in a reduced adverb clause can be in one of two forms. The -ing form is used for the active voice, and the -ed form (the past participle) is used for thepassive voice."
    (Jolene Gear and Robert Gear, Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL® Test, 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2006)


  • While I was away in college, I stayed with my roommate's family during one spring break. [clause]
    While away in college, I stayed with my roommate's family during one spring break. [phrase]


  • When she is working at home, Carla takes her youngest child to school in the morning. [clause]
    When working at home, Carla takes her youngest child to school in the morning. [phrase]


  • Although Marc Bloch was impressed by the bravery of his fellow soldiers, he had harsh words for the army leadership. [clause]
    "Although impressed by the bravery of his fellow soldiers, Bloch had harsh words for the army leadership." [phrase]
    (Marnie Hughes-Warrington, Fifty Key Thinkers on History, 2nd ed. Routledge, 2008)
  • Source:http://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/Reduced-Adverb-ial-Clause.htm

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